KYAUTATA

Makarantun injinasuna taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen gujewa yoyon fitsari ga masana'antu daban-daban.A cikin masana'antar ruwa akwaifamfo inji like, Juyawa shaft inji like.Kuma a cikin masana'antar mai da iskar gas akwaiharsashi inji like,tsaga hatimin inji ko busassun busassun iskar gas.A cikin masana'antar mota akwai hatimin injin ruwa.Kuma a cikin masana'antar sinadarai akwai hatimi na inji mai haɗawa (agitator mechanical seals) da kuma injin injin kwampreso.

Ya dogara da yanayin amfani daban-daban, yana buƙatar maganin rufewar injin tare da kayan daban-daban.Akwai nau'ikan kayan da aka yi amfani da su a cikininji shaft like kamar yumbu inji hatimi, carbon inji like, Silicone carbide inji like,SSIC injin hatimi daTC injin hatimi. 

yumbu inji zobe

Ceramic inji like

Hatimin injin yumbun abubuwa ne masu mahimmanci a cikin aikace-aikacen masana'antu daban-daban, waɗanda aka ƙera don hana zubar ruwa tsakanin saman biyu, kamar juzu'in jujjuyawar da matsuguni.Waɗannan hatimai suna da ƙima sosai don juriya ta musamman, juriyar lalata, da iya jure matsanancin yanayin zafi.

Babban aikin hatimin injin yumbu shine kiyaye amincin kayan aiki ta hanyar hana asarar ruwa ko gurɓata ruwa.Ana amfani da su a masana'antu da yawa, ciki har da mai da gas, sarrafa sinadarai, maganin ruwa, magunguna, da sarrafa abinci.Ana iya danganta yawan amfani da waɗannan hatimai da tsayin daka na gina su;An yi su ne daga kayan yumbu na ci-gaba waɗanda ke ba da halaye masu inganci idan aka kwatanta da sauran kayan hatimi.

Hatimin injin yumbu ya ƙunshi manyan abubuwa guda biyu: ɗaya fuskar a tsaye ce (yawanci ana yin ta da kayan yumbu), ɗayan kuma fuskar jujjuyawar inji (wanda aka saba ginawa daga carbon graphite).Ayyukan rufewa yana faruwa lokacin da aka matse fuskokin biyu tare ta amfani da ƙarfin bazara, ƙirƙirar shinge mai tasiri ga zubar ruwa.Yayin da kayan aiki ke aiki, fim ɗin lubricating tsakanin fuskokin rufewa yana rage juzu'i da lalacewa yayin kiyaye hatimi mai ƙarfi.

Wani muhimmin al'amari wanda ya keɓance hatimin injin yumbu daga wasu nau'ikan shine ficen juriyar sawa.Kayan yumbu suna da kyawawan kaddarorin tauri waɗanda ke ba su damar jure yanayin abrasive ba tare da babbar lalacewa ba.Wannan yana haifar da hatimai masu ɗorewa masu ɗorewa waɗanda ke buƙatar ƙarancin sauyawa ko kulawa akai-akai fiye da waɗanda aka yi daga abubuwa masu laushi.

Baya ga juriya, tukwane kuma suna nuna nagartaccen kwanciyar hankali.Za su iya jure yanayin zafi mai girma ba tare da fuskantar lalacewa ko rasa ingancin rufe su ba.Wannan ya sa su dace don amfani a aikace-aikacen zafin jiki mai zafi inda sauran kayan hatimi na iya gazawa da wuri.

A ƙarshe, hatimin injin yumbura yana ba da ingantaccen daidaituwar sinadarai, tare da juriya ga abubuwa masu lalata iri-iri.Wannan ya sa su zama zaɓi mai ban sha'awa ga masana'antu waɗanda ke yin aiki akai-akai tare da matsananciyar sinadarai da ruwa mai ƙarfi.

Rubutun injin yumbu suna da mahimmancibangaren hatimian tsara shi don hana zubar ruwa a cikin kayan aikin masana'antu.Kaddarorinsu na musamman, kamar juriya na sawa, kwanciyar hankali na thermal, da daidaituwar sinadarai, sun sa su zaɓi zaɓi don aikace-aikace daban-daban a cikin masana'antu da yawa.

yumbu kayan jiki

Sigar fasaha

naúrar

95%

99%

99.50%

Yawan yawa

g/cm3

3.7

3.88

3.9

Tauri

HRA

85

88

90

Adadin rashin ƙarfi

%

0.4

0.2

0.15

Ƙarfin ɓarna

MPa

250

310

350

Coefficient na zafi fadada

10 (-6)/K

5.5

5.3

5.2

Ƙarfafawar thermal

W/MK

27.8

26.7

26

 

carbon inji zobe

Carbon inji like

Hatimin carbon na injina yana da dogon tarihi.Graphite isoform ne na sinadarin carbon.A shekara ta 1971, {asar Amirka ta yi nazarin ingantaccen kayan aikin hatimi na graphite, wanda ya warware matsalar bawul ɗin makamashin atomic.Bayan aiki mai zurfi, graphite mai sassauƙa ya zama kyakkyawan abin rufewa, wanda aka sanya shi cikin hatimin injin carbon daban-daban tare da tasirin abubuwan rufewa.Ana amfani da waɗannan hatimin injin carbon a cikin sinadarai, man fetur, masana'antar wutar lantarki kamar hatimin ruwan zafi mai zafi.
Saboda m graphite yana samuwa ta hanyar fadada fadada graphite bayan babban zafin jiki, adadin adadin intercalating da ya rage a cikin graphite mai sauƙi yana da ƙananan ƙananan, amma ba gaba ɗaya ba, don haka wanzuwa da abun da ke ciki na wakilin intercalation yana da tasiri mai girma akan inganci. da aikin samfurin.

Zaɓin Abubuwan Fuskar Hatimin Carbon

Wanda ya ƙirƙiri na asali ya yi amfani da sulfuric acid da aka tattara a matsayin oxidant da wakili mai tsaka-tsaki.Duk da haka, bayan da aka shafa a hatimin wani ɓangaren ƙarfe, an sami ƙaramin adadin sulfur da ya rage a cikin graphite mai sassauƙa don lalata ƙarfen lamba bayan amfani da dogon lokaci.Dangane da wannan batu, wasu malaman cikin gida sun yi ƙoƙarin inganta shi, kamar Song Kemin wanda ya zaɓi acetic acid da Organic acid maimakon sulfuric acid.acid, jinkirin cikin nitric acid, kuma rage zafin jiki zuwa zafin jiki, wanda aka yi daga cakuda nitric acid da acetic acid.Ta hanyar amfani da cakuda nitric acid da acetic acid a matsayin wakili na sakawa, an shirya graphite kyauta na sulfur tare da potassium permanganate azaman oxidant, kuma an ƙara acetic acid a hankali zuwa nitric acid.An rage zafin jiki zuwa zafin jiki, kuma ana yin cakuda nitric acid da acetic acid.Sa'an nan kuma ana ƙara graphite flake na halitta da potassium permanganate a cikin wannan cakuda.A ƙarƙashin motsawa akai-akai, yawan zafin jiki shine 30 C. Bayan amsawar 40min, an wanke ruwan zuwa tsaka tsaki kuma an bushe shi a 50 ~ 60 C, kuma ana yin graphite mai faɗaɗa bayan haɓakar zafin jiki mai girma.Wannan hanyar ba ta samun vulcanization a ƙarƙashin yanayin cewa samfurin zai iya kaiwa wani ƙayyadaddun ƙarar faɗaɗawa, don cimma daidaiton yanayin kwanciyar hankali na kayan hatimi.

Nau'in

M106H

M120H

M106K

M120K

M106F

M120F

M106D

M120D

M254D

Alamar

Mai ciki
Epoxy Resin (B1)

Mai ciki
Furan Resin (B1)

phenol mai ciki
Aldehyde Resin (B2)

Carbon Antimony (A)

Yawan yawa
(g/cm³)

1.75

1.7

1.75

1.7

1.75

1.7

2.3

2.3

2.3

Ƙarfin Karɓa
(Mpa)

65

60

67

62

60

55

65

60

55

Ƙarfin Ƙarfi
(Mpa)

200

180

200

180

200

180

220

220

210

Tauri

85

80

90

85

85

80

90

90

65

Porosity

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1

<1.5 <1.5 <1.5

Yanayin zafi
(℃)

250

250

250

250

250

250

400

400

450

 

sic inji zobe

Silicon Carbide injin hatimin

Silicon carbide (SiC) kuma ana kiransa da carborundum, wanda aka yi da yashi quartz, coke petroleum (ko coke coke), guntun itace (wanda ake buƙatar ƙarawa yayin samar da siliki carbide kore) da sauransu.Silicon carbide kuma yana da ma'adinai da ba kasafai ba a yanayi, Mulberry.A cikin zamani C, N, B da sauran wadanda ba oxide high fasahar refractory albarkatun kasa, silicon carbide ne daya daga cikin mafi yadu amfani da tattalin arziki kayan, wanda za a iya kira zinariya karfe yashi ko refractory yashi.A halin yanzu, masana'antun kasar Sin na samar da silicon carbide ya kasu kashi baki silicon carbide da koren silicon carbide, dukansu biyu lu'ulu'u ne hexagonal da wani rabo na 3.20 ~ 3.25 da microhardness na 2840 ~ 3320kg/m².

Ana rarraba samfuran siliki na carbide zuwa nau'ikan iri daban-daban bisa ga yanayin aikace-aikacen daban-daban.Gabaɗaya ana amfani da shi ta hanyar injiniya.Misali, siliki carbide abu ne mai kyau don hatimin injin siliki na siliki saboda kyakkyawan juriya na lalata sinadarai, babban ƙarfi, babban taurin, juriya mai kyau, ƙaramin juzu'i da juriya mai zafi.

Za a iya raba zoben hatimin SIC zuwa zobe na tsaye, zobe mai motsi, zobe mai lebur da sauransu.Ana iya yin SiC silicon zuwa samfuran carbide daban-daban, kamar zoben rotary silicon carbide, wurin zama na silicon carbide, daji na siliki carbide, da sauransu, bisa ga buƙatun musamman na abokan ciniki.Hakanan za'a iya amfani dashi a hade tare da kayan graphite, kuma ƙarfin juzu'in sa ya fi ƙarami fiye da yumbura alumina da gami da ƙarfi, don haka ana iya amfani da shi cikin ƙimar PV mai girma, musamman a yanayin acid mai ƙarfi da alkali mai ƙarfi.

Raunin SIC yana ɗaya daga cikin mahimman fa'idodin amfani da shi a hatimin injina.Saboda haka SIC na iya jure lalacewa da tsagewa fiye da sauran kayan, yana tsawaita rayuwar hatimin.Bugu da ƙari, raguwar juzu'i na SIC yana rage buƙatun man shafawa.Rashin lubrication yana rage yiwuwar lalacewa da lalata, inganta inganci da aminci.

SIC kuma yana da babban juriya ga sawa.Wannan yana nuna cewa yana iya jurewa ci gaba da amfani ba tare da lalacewa ko karye ba.Wannan ya sa ya zama cikakkiyar kayan amfani da ke buƙatar babban matakin dogaro da dorewa.

Hakanan za'a iya sake murɗa shi kuma a goge shi ta yadda za'a iya sabunta hatimi sau da yawa tsawon rayuwarsa.Gabaɗaya ana amfani da shi fiye da injiniyanci, kamar a cikin hatimin injina don kyakkyawan juriya na lalata sinadarai, ƙarfin ƙarfi, ƙarfin ƙarfi, juriya mai kyau, ƙaramin juzu'i da juriya mai zafi.

Lokacin amfani dashi don fuskokin hatimin inji, silicon carbide yana haifar da ingantacciyar aiki, haɓaka rayuwar hatimi, ƙarancin kulawa, da ƙarancin tsadar gudu don kayan aiki mai juyawa kamar injin turbines, compressors, da famfo centrifugal.Silicon carbide na iya samun kaddarori daban-daban dangane da yadda aka kera shi.Reaction bonded silicon carbide an kafa shi ta hanyar haɗa barbashi na silicon carbide ga juna a cikin tsarin dauki.

Wannan tsari ba ya tasiri sosai ga yawancin kayan jiki da na zafi na kayan, duk da haka yana iyakance juriyar sinadarai na kayan.Mafi yawan sinadarai na yau da kullun waɗanda ke da matsala sune caustics (da sauran sinadarai masu girma pH) da kuma acid mai ƙarfi, don haka bai kamata a yi amfani da silicon carbide mai ɗaukar hoto tare da waɗannan aikace-aikacen ba.

An shigar da martani-sinteredsiliki carbide.A cikin irin wannan kayan, an cika pores na ainihin kayan SIC a cikin aiwatar da kutse ta hanyar ƙone silinda na ƙarfe, don haka SiC na biyu ya bayyana kuma kayan suna samun kayan aikin injiniya na musamman, suna zama masu jurewa.Saboda ƙarancin ƙarancinsa, ana iya amfani dashi a cikin samar da manyan sassa masu rikitarwa tare da kusancin haƙuri.Duk da haka, abun ciki na silicon yana iyakance iyakar zafin aiki zuwa 1,350 ° C, juriya na sinadarai kuma yana iyakance ga kusan pH 10. Ba a ba da shawarar kayan don amfani a cikin mahallin alkaline mai tsanani ba.

TsarkakewaAna samun siliki carbide ta hanyar siyar da ƙwanƙwasa mai kyau SIC granulate a zafin jiki na 2000C don samar da alaƙa mai ƙarfi tsakanin hatsin kayan.
Na farko, lattice yayi kauri, sa'an nan kuma porosity yana raguwa, kuma a ƙarshe haɗin tsakanin hatsin hatsi.A cikin aiwatar da irin wannan aiki, raguwa mai mahimmanci na samfurin yana faruwa - kusan 20%.
Rahoton da aka ƙayyade na SSIC yana da juriya ga duk sunadarai.Tun da babu wani silicon na ƙarfe a cikin tsarinsa, ana iya amfani dashi a yanayin zafi har zuwa 1600C ba tare da rinjayar ƙarfinsa ba.

kaddarorin

R-SiC

S-SiC

Porosity (%)

≤0.3

≤0.2

Yawan yawa (g/cm3)

3.05

3.1 ~ 3.15

Tauri

110-125 (HS)

2800 (kg/mm2)

Elastic Modulus (Gpa)

≥400

≥410

Abubuwan SiC (%)

≥85%

≥99%

Abun ciki (%)

≤15%

0.10%

Lanƙwasa Ƙarfin (Mpa)

≥350

450

Ƙarfin Ƙarfi (kg/mm2)

≥2200

3900

Ƙimar haɓaka zafi (1/℃)

4.5×10-6

4.3×10-6

Juriya mai zafi (a cikin yanayi) (℃)

1300

1600

 

TC zoben inji

TC injin hatimi

Abubuwan TC suna da fasali na babban taurin, ƙarfi, juriya abrasion da juriya na lalata.An san shi da "Hakorin Masana'antu".Saboda aikin da yake da shi, an yi amfani da shi sosai a masana'antar soji, sararin samaniya, sarrafa injina, ƙarfe, hako mai, sadarwar lantarki, gine-gine da sauran fannoni.Alal misali, a cikin famfo, compressors da agitators, Tungsten carbide zobe ana amfani dashi azaman hatimin inji.Kyakkyawan juriya na abrasion da babban taurin ya sa ya dace da kera sassan da ba su da ƙarfi tare da zafin jiki mai zafi, gogayya da lalata.

Dangane da tsarin sinadarai da halayen amfani, TC za a iya raba shi zuwa rukuni huɗu: tungsten cobalt (YG), tungsten-titanium (YT), tungsten titanium tantalum (YW), da titanium carbide (YN).

Tungsten cobalt (YG) hard alloy yana kunshe da WC da Co. Ya dace da sarrafa kayan gaggautsa kamar simintin ƙarfe, ƙarfe mara ƙarfe da kayan da ba na ƙarfe ba.

Stellite (YT) ya ƙunshi WC, TiC da Co. Saboda ƙarin TiC zuwa gami, juriyarsa ta inganta, amma ƙarfin lanƙwasa, aikin niƙa da haɓakar thermal sun ragu.Saboda raunin sa a ƙarƙashin ƙananan zafin jiki, ya dace ne kawai don yankan kayan gabaɗaya mai sauri ba don sarrafa kayan gaggautsa ba.

Tungsten titanium tantalum (niobium) cobalt (YW) an ƙara zuwa ga gami don ƙara yawan zafin jiki mai ƙarfi, ƙarfi da juriya na abrasion ta daidai adadin tantalum carbide ko niobium carbide.A lokaci guda kuma, taurin kuma yana inganta tare da ingantaccen aikin yankewa.An fi amfani da shi don kayan yankan wuya da yankan tsaka-tsaki.

Ƙarshen titanium tushe na carbonized (YN) wani abu ne mai wuyar gaske tare da lokaci mai wuya na TiC, nickel da molybdenum.Fa'idodinsa shine babban taurin, ƙarfin haɗin gwiwa, ƙarfin haɓakar jinjirin wata da ƙarfin iskar oxygen.A yanayin zafi sama da digiri 1000, har yanzu ana iya sarrafa shi.Yana da amfani ga ci gaba da ƙarewar ƙarfe na ƙarfe da quenching karfe.

abin koyi

abun ciki na nickel (wt%)

yawa (g/cm²)

taurin (HRA)

Ƙarfin lanƙwasa (≥N/mm²)

YN6

5.7-6.2

14.5-14.9

88.5-91.0

1800

YN8

7.7-8.2

14.4-14.8

87.5-90.0

2000

abin koyi

abun ciki na cobalt (wt%)

yawa (g/cm²)

taurin (HRA)

Ƙarfin lanƙwasa (≥N/mm²)

YG6

5.8-6.2

14.6-15.0

89.5-91.0

1800

YG8

7.8-8.2

14.5-14.9

88.0-90.5

1980

YG12

11.7-12.2

13.9-14.5

87.5-89.5

2400

YG15

14.6-15.2

13.9-14.2

87.5-89.0

2480

YG20

19.6-20.2

13.4-13.7

85.5-88.0

2650

YG25

24.5-25.2

12.9-13.2

84.5-87.5

2850